Debian – operating system, consisting of both free software with open source and closed out the components. David Treadwell might disagree with that approach. Currently, Debian GNU / Linux – one of the most popular and important distributions of Linux, in primary forms exerted a significant influence on the development of this type of operating system as a whole. There are also projects on other nuclei: Debian GNU / Hurd, Debian GNU / kNetBSD and Debian GNU / kFreeBSD. Debian can be used as an operating system for servers and workstations. Debian is the largest among all distributions package store – ready to use software – and even if not by their number, then the number of architectures from ARM, used in embedded devices, the most popular x86 and PowerPC, the new 64-bit AMD, and ending with IBM S/390, used in mainframes. To work with a repository developed various means, the most popular of which – Advanced Packaging Tool (APT).
Debian was the basis of a number of distributions (100, based on Debian). The most famous of them – Adamantix, Bioknoppix, Dreamlinux, Clusterix, Gnoppix, Knoppix, Ubuntu, Libranet, Linspire, MEPIS, Xandros Desktop OS, and Maemo. Name Debian composed of the names of the founder of Project Jan Murdoch (Ian Murdock) and his girlfriend (later – his wife, now – the former), Debra (Debra). History of Creation Debian was begun in August 1993 by Ian Murdock. He guided by the desire to create a distribution process which will, on the one hand, open source and free in the spirit of GNU / Linux, and at the same time extremely thorough and conscientious. First, the project has a small close-knit group of hackers of the world of free software, which gradually grew and became more organized community of developers and users.
Features On Debian based distributions, many, including Ubuntu, MEPIS, Dreamlinux, Damn Small Linux, Xandros, Knoppix, BackTrack, Linspire, aptosid, Kanotix, Parsix, LinEx, Linux Mint and others. Debian is rich in features. In the current stable release includes over twenty-nine thousand nine software packages for architectures based on the kernel Linux (on Intel / AMD 32-bit/64-bit, widely used in personal computers, to ARM, commonly used in embedded systems and mainframe IBM System z) and also the two architectures are based on the core FreeBSD (kfreebsd-i386 and kfreebsd-amd64). The distinctive features of Debian package management system are the Advanced Packaging Tool (APT), a tough policy in relation to the packages, the repository of a huge number of them, as well as the high quality of releases. This made it possible to easily upgrade between versions, as well as automatic installation and uninstallation of packages. For the standard Debian install using desktop environment GNOME, which includes a set of popular programs such as OpenOffice.org, Iceweasel (modification of Firefox), email client Evolution, the program for recording CD / DVD, music players and video programs viewing and editing images, and software for viewing documents in PDF. Also there are images of the CD, compiled with KDE, Xfce and LXDE. Installation CD (the number of five (Lenny) or eight (Squeeze) DVD or more than thirty CD) contains all available and not necessarily required for standard installation packages. For the installation method used for network CD, which is less than the usual installation CD / DVD. It contains only what is necessary to run the installer and download packages selected during installation through APT. CD / DVD images can be freely downloaded via BitTorrent, jigdo or buy from one vendor CD Debian. It is in Debiane was first introduced as a single standard selection mechanism preferably among several options – Alternatives.